How to change backup Location of Iphone, Ipad, Ipod on Windows/Mac

IOS

Backing up of your IOS devices is the best preventive maintenance in case the device was stolen and damaged. By default your devices writes the backup on the Operating System’s default installation drive. Well, on certain times you can use the icloud in which a free 5 GB data storage is available for you, that’s in case you only need 5 GB, in excess to this you will need to pay for the additional icloud storage. So most certain, if you prefer to just have the backup on your local computer on a separate data disk here’s how you can link the existing device backup path to a different disk/location(usually a portable external storage).

backup_device

external backup device

OS X

1) Make sure that iTunes is closed.

2) You will now move your folder called ~/Library/Application Support/MobileSync/Backup/ to the drive you want to back up to. For instance, an external drive or secondary drive within your computer. Whichever works for you.

3) Launch Terminal Applications/Utilities/Terminal and type in the following command line:

ln -s /Volumes/DriveName/Backup/ ~/Library/Application\ Support/MobileSync/Backup

In the above example, ‘DriveName’ would be the name of the new backup location.

(Credit: Link)


Windows XP

1) Ensure that iTunes in closed.

2) Download Junction ( Or you can use MKlink for Windows, which will make things a little different in the command prompt)

3) Unzip Junction.exe to your username folder, which is usually found in C:\Documents and Settings\

4) You will now create a folder for the your backups where you want them to save. From there, you will move your current backup folder to that new location.

a) The default location of that backup folder is here: C:\Documents and Setting\username\Application Data\Apple Computer\MobileSync

b) You will now put it in the new location you want your backups to save to, such as an external drive.

5) Now run the Command Prompt and type the following:

junction “C:\Documents and Setting\\Application Data\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup” “H:\Backups\iPhone Backup”

In the above example, “H:\Backups\iPhone Backup” should be your own file path leading to the backup location you want to use.

6) Close the Command Prompt and open iTunes and backup.

(credit: Link)


Windows Vista and Windows 7

1) Ensure that iTunes is closed.

2) Move the C:\Users\(username)\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup\ to the drive you want to back up to. Let’s say Drive H:\ again

3) Open a command prompt and create an NTFS junction point something like what’s shown below:

mklink /J “C:\Users\(username)\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup” “h:\Backup”

(Credit: Link)

Have a happy time cleaning up your main disk.

 

20 Most used Linux-based system monitoring tools

tuxsysad

The following are some of the  basic CLI, GUI, TUI commands to use in monitoring linux operated systems and helps in in-depth system analysis and debugging of server problems. These commands commonly help resolve issues regarding CPU, Memory, Network, and Storage.

1: top – Process Activity Command

The top program provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system i.e. actual process activity. By default, it displays the most CPU-intensive tasks running on the server and updates the list every five seconds.

#top 
top

top

2: vmstat – System Activity, Hardware and System Information

The command vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.

#vmstat -a
vmstat

vmstat

3: w – Find Out Who Is Logged on And What They Are Doing

w command displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes.

# w testuser 
w

w

4: uptime – Tell How Long The System Has Been Running

The uptime command can be used to see how long the server has been running. The current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

# uptime
uptime

uptime

1 can be considered as optimal load value. The load can change from system to system. For a single CPU system 1 – 3 and SMP systems 6-10 load value might be acceptable.

5: ps – Displays The Processes

ps

ps

ps command will report a snapshot of the current processes. To select all processes use the -A or -e option:

# ps -A

ps is just like top but provides more information.

Show Long Format Output

# ps -Al
To turn on extra full mode (it will show command line arguments passed to process):
# ps -AlF

To See Threads ( LWP and NLWP)

# ps -AlFH

To See Threads After Processes

# ps -AlLm

Print All Process On The Server

# ps ax
# ps axu

Print A Process Tree

# ps -ejH
# ps axjf
# pstree

Print Security Information

# ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
# ps axZ
# ps -eM

See Every Process Running As User testuser

# ps -U testuser -u testuser u

Set Output In a User-Defined Format

# ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
# ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
# ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

Display Only The Process IDs of Lighttpd

# ps -C lighttpd -o pid=
OR
# pgrep lighttpd
OR
# pgrep -u testuser php-cgi

Display The Name of PID 55977

# ps -p 55977 -o comm=

Find Out The Top 10 Memory Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 4 | head -10

Find Out top 10 CPU Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 3 | head -10

6: free - Memory Usage 

The command free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel.

# free 
free

free

7: iostat – Average CPU Load, Disk Activity

The command iostat report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices, partitions and network filesystems (NFS).

# iostat 
iostat

iostat

8: sar – Collect and Report System Activity

The sar command is used to collect, report, and save system activity information. To see network counter, enter:

sar

sar

# sar -n DEV | more
To display the network counters from the 24th:
# sar -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa24 | more
You can also display real time usage using sar:
# sar 4 5

9: mpstat – Multiprocessor Usage

The mpstat command displays activities for each available processor, processor 0 being the first one. mpstat -P ALL to display average CPU utilization per processor:

# mpstat -P ALL
mpstat

mpstat

10: pmap – Process Memory Usage

The command pmap report memory map of a process. Use this command to find out causes of memory bottlenecks.

# pmap -d PID 

To display process memory information for pid # 47394, enter:

# pmap -d 47394 
pmap

pmap

11 netstat – Network Statistics

The command netstat displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships

netstat

netstat

12: ss – Network Statistics

ss command is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat.

ss

ss

13: iptraf – Real-time Network Statistics

The iptraf command is interactive colorful IP LAN monitor. It is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. It can provide the following info in easy to read format:

  • Network traffic statistics by TCP connection
  • IP traffic statistics by network interface
  • Network traffic statistics by protocol
  • Network traffic statistics by TCP/UDP port and by packet size
  • Network traffic statistics by Layer2 address
iptraf1

iptraf1

iptraf2

iptraf2

14: tcpdump – Detailed Network Traffic Analysis

The tcpdump is simple command that dump traffic on a network. However, you need good understanding of TCP/IP protocol to utilize this tool. For.e.g to display traffic info about DNS, enter:

 # tcpdump -i eth0 'tcp port 80'

To display all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets, enter:

# tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)' 

To display all FTP session to 202.54.1.5, enter:

# tcpdump -i eth1 'dst 202.54.1.5 and (port 21 or 20' 

To display all HTTP session to 192.168.1.5:

# tcpdump -ni eth0 'dst 192.168.1.5 and tcp and port http'

Use wireshark to view detailed information about files, enter:

# tcpdump -n -i eth1 -s 0 -w output.txt src or dst port 80 
tcpdump

tcpdump

15: strace – System Calls

Trace system calls and signals. This is useful for debugging webserver and other server problems. See how to use to trace the process and see What it is doing.

Strace

Strace

16: /Proc file system – Various Kernel Statistics

/proc file system provides detailed information about various hardware devices and other Linux kernel information. See Linux kernel /proc documentations for further details. Common /proc examples:

# cat /proc/cpuinfo
# cat /proc/meminfo
# cat /proc/zoneinfo
# cat /proc/mounts
proc

proc

17: Nagios – Server And Network Monitoring

Nagios is a popular open source computer system and network monitoring application software. You can easily monitor all your hosts, network equipment and services. It can send alert when things go wrong and again when they get better. FAN is “Fully Automated Nagios”. FAN goals are to provide a Nagios installation including most tools provided by the Nagios Community. FAN provides a CDRom image in the standard ISO format, making it easy to easilly install a Nagios server. Added to this, a wide bunch of tools are including to the distribution, in order to improve the user experience around Nagios. See how to install Nagios

nagios

nagios

18: Cacti – Web-based Monitoring Tool

Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool’s data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices. It can provide data about network, CPU, memory, logged in users, Apache, DNS servers and much more. See how to install and configure Cacti network graphing tool on linux box.

cacti

cacti

19: KDE System Guard – Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

KSysguard is a network enabled task and system monitor application for KDE desktop. This tool can be run over ssh session. It provides lots of features such as a client/server architecture that enables monitoring of local and remote hosts. The graphical front end uses so-called sensors to retrieve the information it displays. A sensor can return simple values or more complex information like tables. For each type of information, one or more displays are provided. Displays are organized in worksheets that can be saved and loaded independently from each other. So, KSysguard is not only a simple task manager but also a very powerful tool to control large server farms.

kdesystemguard

kdesystemguard

20: Gnome System Monitor – Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

The System Monitor application enables you to display basic system information and monitor system processes, usage of system resources, and file systems. You can also use System Monitor to modify the behavior of your system. Although not as powerful as the KDE System Guard, it provides the basic information which may be useful for new users:

  • Displays various basic information about the computer’s hardware and software.
  • Linux Kernel version
  • GNOME version
  • Hardware
  • Installed memory
  • Processors and speeds
  • System Status
  • Currently available disk space
  • Processes
  • Memory and swap space
  • Network usage
  • File Systems
  • Lists all mounted filesystems along with basic information about each.
gnome-system-monitor

gnome-system-monitor

More Tools of interest

A few more tools:

  • nmap – scan your server for open ports.
  • lsof – list open files, network connections and much more.
  • ntop web based tool – ntop is the best tool to see network usage in a way similar to what top command does for processes i.e. it is network traffic monitoring software. You can see network status, protocol wise distribution of traffic for UDP, TCP, DNS, HTTP and other protocols.
  • Conky – Another good monitoring tool for the X Window System. It is highly configurable and is able to monitor many system variables including the status of the CPU, memory, swap space, disk storage, temperatures, processes, network interfaces, battery power, system messages, e-mail inboxes etc.
  • GKrellM – It can be used to monitor the status of CPUs, main memory, hard disks, network interfaces, local and remote mailboxes, and many other things.
  • vnstat – vnStat is a console-based network traffic monitor. It keeps a log of hourly, daily and monthly network traffic for the selected interface(s).
  • htop – htop is an enhanced version of top, the interactive process viewer, which can display the list of processes in a tree form.
  • mtr – mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.
  • wireshark - is a free and open-source packet analyzer. It is used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communications protocol development, and education. Originally named Ethereal, in May 2006 the project was renamed Wireshark due to trademark issues.
  • snort – Snort’s open source network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) has the ability to perform real-time traffic analysis and packet logging on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Snort performs protocol analysis, content searching, and content matching. The program can also be used to detect probes or attacks, including, but not limited to, operating system fingerprinting attempts, common gateway interface, buffer overflows, server message block probes, and stealth port scans.
  • Centreon – Centreon is an Open Source software package that lets you supervise all the infrastructures and applications comprising your information system.

References:

http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/top-linux-monitoring-tools.html

http://www.wireshark.org/about.html

Invoking GUI Network tool on Centos 6

 nm-connection-editor

you need to first install NetworkManager using YUM

yum install NetworkManager

Or check it is already started or not

service NetworkManager status

else start the service

service NetworkManager start
chkconfig NetworkManager on

To open to GUI interface you need to execute “nm-applet” command. and to configure or edit configurations “nm-connection-editor” use this command

nm-applet
nm-connection-editor (note: this command is formerly known as system-config-network-gui)

Snort (Intrusion Detection Utility) Installation in Centos 6

snort

Definition

snort2SNORT  is a free and open source network intrusion prevention system (NIPS) and network intrusion detection system (NIDS)[2] created by Martin Roesch in 1998.Snort is now developed by Sourcefire, of which Roesch is the founder and CTO.In 2009, Snort entered InfoWorld’s Open Source Hall of Fame as one of the “greatest [pieces of] open source software of all time”.

Snort’s open source network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) has the ability to perform real-time traffic analysis and packet logging on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Snort performs protocol analysis, content searching, and content matching. The program can also be used to detect probes or attacks, including, but not limited to, operating system fingerprinting attempts, common gateway interface, buffer overflows, server message block probes, and stealth port scans.

Snort can be configured in three main modes: sniffer, packet logger, and network intrusion detection. In sniffer mode, the program will read network packets and display them on the console. In packet logger mode, the program will log packets to the disk. In intrusion detection mode, the program will monitor network traffic and analyze it against a rule set defined by the user. The program will then perform a specific action based on what has been identified.

Before proceeding with Snort installation you will need to install the required packages.  Follow the steps to do prior to snort’s installation.

Pre-Installation

Make sure to have the latest version of  MySQL, HTTP, Development Tools and Development Libraries.

     Install the necessary packages needed to run snort successfully.

 #yum install mysql-bench mysql-devel php-mysql gcc php-gd gd glib2-devel gcc-c++

      Yum install libcap, libpcap and pcre

#yum install libcap*
#yum install libpcap*
#yum install pcre*

      Install libdnet 1.12

#cd /
#mkdir snort_install
#cd snort_install
#wget http://libdnet.googlecode.com/files/libdnet-1.12.tgz
#tar -zxvf libdnet-1.12.tgz
#cd libdnet-1.12
#./configure
#make && make install

     Install daq version 2.0.0

#cd /snort_install
#wget http://www.snort.org/downloads/2103
#tar -zxvf daq-2.0.0.tar.gz
#cd daq-2.0.0
#./configure
#make && make install

     Install snort version 2.9.4

#cd /snort_install
#wget http://www.snort.org/downloads/2112
#tar -zxvf snort-2.9.4.tar.gz
#cd snort-2.9.4
#./configure
#make && make install

Post Installation Instruction

      prepare for rules installation

# groupadd snort
# useradd -g snort snort -s /sbin/nologin
# mkdir /etc/snort
# mkdir /etc/snort/rules
# mkdir /etc/snort/so_rules
# mkdir /etc/snort/preproc_rules
# mkdir /var/log/snort
# chown snort:snort /var/log/snort
# mkdir /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicrules
# cd /snort_install/snort-2.9.4/etc/
# cp * /etc/snort/

      Register on Snort official web site and download rules to  /snort_install directory

#cd /snort_install
#tar -zxvf snortrules-snapshot-2940.tar.gz
#cd rules/
#cp * /etc/snort/rules
#cp ../so_rules/precompiled/Centos-5-4/i386/2.9.4.0/* /etc/snort/so_rules
#cp ../preproc_rules/* /etc/snort/preproc_rules/

     Edit /etc/snort/snort.conf file

1.change “var RULE_PATH ../rules” to “var RULE_PATH /etc/snort/rules”,
change “var SO_RULE_PATH ../so_rules” to “var SO_RULE_PATH /etc/snort/so_rules”,
change “var PREPROC_RULE_PATH ../preproc_rules” to “var PREPROC_RULE_PATH /etc/snort/preproc_rules”
2. comment on the whole “Reputation preprocessor” section, because we haven’t whitelist file
3. find “Configure output plugins” section and add the line “output unified2: filename snort.log, limit 128″

    Install Barnyard 2

#cd /snort_install
#wget http://www.securixlive.com/download/barnyard2/barnyard2-1.9.tar.gz
#tar -zxvf barnyard2-1.9.tar.gz 
#cd barnyard2-1.9
#./configure 
#./configure --with-mysql-libraries=/usr/lib/mysql/
#make 
#make install
#cp etc/barnyard2.conf /etc/snort/
#mkdir /var/log/barnyard2
#chmod 666 /var/log/barnyard2
#touch /var/log/snort/barnyard2.waldo

       Setup MySQL Database

#echo "SET PASSWORD FOR root@localhost=PASSWORD('yourpassword');"| mysql -u root -p
#echo "create database snort;"| mysql -u root -p
#cd /snort_install/barnyard2-1.9
#mysql -u root -p -D snort < schemas/create_mysql
#echo "grant create, insert on root.* to snort@localhost;" | mysql -u root -p
#echo "SET PASSWORD FOR snort@localhost=PASSWORD('yourpassword');" | mysql -u root -p
#echo "grant create,insert,select,delete,update on snort.* to snort@localhost" | mysql -u root -p

     Edit the file /etc/snort/barnyard2.conf

change “config hostname: thor” to “config hostname: localhost”

change “config interface: eth0″ to “config interface: eth1″

add the line at the end of file “output database: log, mysql, user=snort password=yourpassword dbname=snort     host=localhost”
Note: the device eth1 may vary depending on your system set-up. The example given above is a 2 network device(eth0,eth1) setup where snort was applied to the second network device(eth1)
 

      Test

#/usr/local/bin/snort -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -i eth1

    If it prompts “Initialization Complete”, it proves to work.

      or  Execute snort from command line

#snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -l /var/log/snort/

If testing and manual run working perfectly fine proceed with the next step

      Make Snort and Barnyard2 boot up automatically

Edit the file /etc/rc.local, add the below lines

/sbin/ifconfig eth1 up /usr/local/bin/snort -D -u snort -g snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf -i eth1

/usr/local/bin/barnyard2 -c /etc/snort/barnyard2.conf -d /var/log/snort -f snort.log -w /var/log/snort   /barnyard2.waldo -D

Restart to test changes.

#init 6

References:

http://www.snort.org/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snort_%28software%29

http://www.securixlive.com/

http://kezhong.wordpress.com/2012/04/07/install-snort-2-9-2-2-on-centos5-8x86_64/http://www.securixlive.com/